October 23 is the frost, the last solar term in the fall, and the transition from autumn to winter. The frosty weather became colder and began to have frost. With the advent of autumn frost, the vegetable crops that are not cold-tolerant in the open field have been pulled or are about to stop growing, and the vegetation begins to fall yellow, showing a late autumn scene. The production of open field vegetables is coming to an end and should be harvested in time; vegetable production in the protected area is a crucial period for planting and management.
Chinese cabbage harvested in time
The Chinese cabbage that is planted in autumn is in the late stage of the package, and it is about to be harvested. It is necessary to strengthen the management of watering in the later stage and keep the soil moist. Generally, water is sprayed every 5 days to 7 days. When watering, the water quantity is required to be uniform to prevent flooding of large water, and the water is stopped 7 days to 10 days before harvesting. The vegetables should be chopped in time to prevent freezing before the temperature drops to 0 °C. The farmer said: "If you don't cut vegetables in the winter, you must suffer." Daxing, Tongzhou, Shunyi and other plain areas are usually cut off on November 3-7. Day; Yanqing, Miyun, Huairou and other northern mountainous areas should be cut down 5 to 8 days in advance according to local climate change.
Management of autumn greenhouse vegetables
Tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplants, peppers and other warm crops should be strengthened to keep warm and cold-proof work. At night, close the windy vents, and around the shed, a 1 m-1.2 m high straw curtain or old insulation quilt is placed around the door. Watering and timely harvesting. For the tomato fruit that can't change color, it will be harvested in time when the minimum temperature drops to above 8 °C at night, and then placed in a warm greenhouse or idle house. Cold-tolerant vegetables such as celery, lettuce, rapeseed, spinach, and radish should be strengthened in watering and pest control.
Overwintering melons and vegetables
The melon crops such as cucumber and zucchini that are overwintering in the solar greenhouse are in a timely period. It is necessary to do fertilization and land preparation work 10 days in advance, and apply 5000 kg of high-quality organic fertilizer with sufficient decomposing and fine crushing per mu. Bio-organic fertilizer or commercial organic fertilizer 3000 kg. The melon crops are strict in soil requirements, and must be finely grounded, with a depth of more than 30 cm, so as to be loose, flat, and free of light and dark; according to the spacing of 1.4 to 1.5 meters, the size of the planting method, large line 1 meter-1.1 Rice, small line 40 cm, made of sorghum 20 cm -25 cm above the ground, covering the mulch, taking the drip irrigation under the membrane or the watering method under the membrane. The specific density depends on the variety. The average cucumber variety is 3,000 to 3,300 per mu; the fruit type cucumber is about 2,200 per mu; the zucchini is 1200 to 1800 per mu. Choose sunny planting, do the appropriate planting, the farmer said: "Deeply planted eggplant, shallow melon." "Cucumber dew, eggplant no neck." Should be nursery and the ground level is appropriate, timely planting after planting water.
Strengthen management of thermophilic vegetables in solar greenhouse
The warm-blooded crops such as tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers in autumn and winter and wintering are in the flowering stage, and management should be strengthened to promote the fruit with high commodity rate.
◆Cultivated loose soil After the slow seedling, the watering seedlings should be controlled, and the cultivating should be carried out 1-2 times when the sensation is suitable, which promotes the growth of the root system, lays a foundation for high yield, and removes the weeds at the same time.
◆ Cold-proof insulation The bottom of the shed film is buried with soil, the rear window is filled with broken grass, and the outside is sealed with foam board or straw curtain. At the same time, the exhaust fan hole and other gaps are also sealed with heat-insulating materials. When the outside night temperature drops to 15 °C, it is covered with insulation materials such as insulation or grass. It is necessary to use materials with good heat preservation, the thickness of the insulation is more than 2 cm, and it has waterproof function; the grasshoppers are required to be thick and evenly distributed, and the weight per square meter is about 3.5 kg.
◆Adjust the appropriate temperature and humidity The temperature in the greenhouse is kept at 23 °C-28 °C during the day and 15 °C-18 °C at night. The indoor relative humidity is adjusted according to different crops, tomato and eggplant are in 45%-50%; sweet pepper and cucumber are in 60%-80%. When the wind is released, the timing of the wind release should be determined according to the temperature change before and after noon. If the outside temperature is lower than 5 °C, the air release time should not exceed 30 minutes, and the wind should be properly ventilated on a cloudy day.
◆Scientific watering After the slow seedlings to the young fruit expansion period, the main goal is to promote root control, and try not to water. The water needs to be large in the early stage of fruit harvesting to the peak of the fruiting period. Generally, water is poured once every 5 days to 7 days. The specific watering time depends on the weather, crop growth and soil. Cucumber and pepper should be more diligent; tomato and eggplant should be longer, and watering time should be carried out in the morning.
◆ Plant adjustment and fruit management 15 days to 20 days after planting, hang the vines in time, each line is hoisted upwards, using silver-gray slings to hang the vines to avoid the mites; timely winding, falling, snoring, removing the lower part Old leaves and yellow leaves. Fruit-type cucumbers should be kept from the 6th leaf, and the young leaves of 1 leaf-5 leaves should be removed as early as possible; tomato and eggplant should be shaken pollinator or release buffalo-assisted pollination when opening 3 to 4 flowers per panicle, and remove excess Young fruit and malformed fruit. Cucumber can take fruit on its own, without the use of growth regulators, and it is forbidden to use the hormones such as "Shun Zhiling" to treat flowers.
◆Equilibrium fertilization tomato first spike fruit length to diameter 2 cm -3 cm (walnut size) should be timely topdressing, per acre with drip irrigation watering application of NPK ratio of 16:8:34 "Christmas tree" instant fertilizer 5 Kg-8 kg, can also be applied with water, with a ratio of NPK: 15:5:25, 8 kg to 10 kg; prevent excessive nitrogen fertilizer, and balance the application of fertilizer to improve quality and yield. The tendon rot plays a key role. Later, when each ear is swollen, it will catch a fat. Eggplant, sweet pepper, cucumber and other crops begin to topdress in the early stage of fruit enlargement.
Harvest of radish and green onions
During the frost season, even the cold-tolerant crops can not grow longer. The farmer said: "The frost can not afford the onion, the longer it is empty." The radish and carrots basically stop growing, so it should be harvested in time to prevent the occurrence of freezing damage. Commodity; radish, carrots are pulled out and the twigs are covered with tweezers; the roots are covered with tweezers; the excavation is selected at an appropriate location, and the storage is carried out when the outside temperature drops below 0 °C. If the green onions are not sold for a while, they should be stored in a place protected from light and low temperatures.
Overwintering root leeks
Do a good job in water and fertilizer management
Overwintering spinach, shallots and onion seedlings are the seedling growth period. First, watering management should be done, but it is not suitable for flood irrigation and watering. When the seedlings are 3 to 4 leaves, they will be topdressed with water once. The ternary fertilizer of about 40% of NPK is 6 kg-8 kg; and the seedlings are crowded in the morning, and the soil is ploughed in time to promote the growth of the seedlings and enhance the ability of cold resistance and wintering.
Cleaning and ploughing
Exotic warm vegetables such as: tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, eggplants, potatoes and other crops after harvesting, early pull and clean the pastoral work. The plants and roots in the ground are taken back and concentrated in a designated place for harmless treatment such as high-temperature composting or ozone disinfection, because there are many wintering eggs and germs. Before ploughing and ploughing the land, in the urban area, the method of planting wintering root leeks or planting rapeseed should be adopted to prevent the exposed soil from forming dust and avoid pollution to the urban air.
key words： Frost-reducing vegetables